Kuzvarirwa mabhiza epamba emazuvano
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Kuzvarirwa mabhiza epamba emazuvano

Kwakabva mabhiza emazuva ano epamba inyaya ine nharo uye yakaoma inotongwa ne2 sciences: genetics uye archeology. Masayendisiti kwenguva yakareba haana kukwanisa kuziva nzvimbo chaiyo yekuonekwa kwebhiza. Nzvimbo dzakasiyana-siyana dzaionekwa senyika yavo: kubva munharaunda yePortugal yemazuva ano kuenda kuMongolia.

Munguva ichangopfuura, boka guru renyika dzakawanda revatsvakurudzi rakabudisa nyaya mumagazini inonzi Nature ichiongorora ma<em>genome anopfuura mazana maviri emabhiza ekare uye pakupedzisira yakaedza kupindura mubvunzo wokuti: โ€œMadzitateguru emabhiza emazuva ano akatanga kuonekwa kupi?โ€.

Kuzvarirwa mabhiza epamba emazuvano

Mabhiza ePrzewalski / Mufananidzo: Oleg Kugaev

Vanyori venyaya vanoti kumusha chaiko mabhiza ose emazuva ano epamba ari nzvimbo dzakaderera dzeDon neVolga - iyo nzvimbo yakapoteredza yemazuva ano Astrakhan dunhu uye kumadokero Kazakhstan.

Bioinformatics, muongorori paMicroGen Biotech Dmitry Ravcheev akatsanangura chaizvo kuti masayendisiti akasvika sei pamhedziso dzakadaro, uye akawana zvakare kuti ndiani akaparara eEuropean tarpans uye akachengetedzwa nenzira inoshamisa mabhiza ePrzewalski ndeemabhiza emazuva ano.

Mabhiza akagara nesu kwemakore zviuru zvishanu chete, nepo imbwa nemhou dzakachengetwa kare - 5 uye 15 zviuru zvemakore apfuura. Zvisinei, munguva pfupi yakadaro yenguva, mabhiza akakwanisa kuchinja zvikuru hupenyu hwedu, kuwedzera kufamba kwevanhu munharaunda uye kuchinja kuenzana kwemauto ehondo.

British mathematician, biologist uye popularizer yesainzi Jacob Bronowski mubhuku rake uye nhepfenyuro yeTV Rise of Mankind inoenzanisa kugadzirwa kwebhiza nekugadzirwa kwetangi - mupfungwa yokuti, kusiyana nemombe dzinodiwa mukurima, bhiza raiva kune munhu kunyanya kukosha kwehondo. Asi pasinei neizvi, mubvunzo wekwakabva mabhiza epamba uchine mapeji akawanda.

Panguva ino, Central Asia (uye kunyanya kugara kweBotai kuchamhembe kweKazakhstan, kwakaberekerwa tsika yeBotai), nzvimbo dzakasiyana-siyana dzekugara paIberian Peninsula uye muAnatolia panguva imwe chete dzinotora nzvimbo yekuzvarwa kwemabhiza ekutanga epamba.

Kuti kupfuyiwa kwemabhiza kwakaitika sei: kamwe-kamwe kana kudzokororwa - hazvizivikanwe. Zvikasadaro, masayendisiti anoona zvakaoma kutaura kuti mabhiza emazuva ano anobva kunaani. Chaive chiverengero chimwe chete chaigara mudzimba here kana kuti waive musanganiswa wevazukuru vemabhiza akasiyana, anopfuyiwa panguva dzakasiyana uye munzvimbo dzakasiyana.

Chimwe chinogumbura tateguru wepedyo. Zvino zvakaoma kutaura kana akanga akafanana zvikuru nebhiza remazuva ano tarpanvaigara mumasango nematehwe eEurope kusvika pakutanga kwezana ramakore rechiXNUMX kana vakapona nanhasi Bhiza rePrzewalski, kana pamwe rudzi rwakasiyana zvachose rwebhiza remusango, semuenzaniso, Lena bhizaaigara kuchamhembe kwakadziva kumabvazuva kweSiberia.

Boka revasayendisiti rakaongorora genomes yerekodhi nhamba yemabhiza ekare panguva ino - 264 mhuka dzakararama kubva ku50 kusvika ku200 BC. e. paIberian Peninsula, muAsia Minor neCentral Asia, uyewo mumapani eWestern Eurasia. Basa racho raisanganisirawo zvidzidzo zvema genome emabhiza gumi emazuva ano uye mapfumbamwe ekare.

Kuzvarirwa mabhiza epamba emazuvano

Tarpan / Mufananidzo: animalreader.ru

Chii chawakwanisa kuziva?

  • Kutanga, zvakazoitika mabhiza ose omudzimba emazuva ano anobva muboka rimwe chete remabhiza anopfuyiwa, kureva kuti vane hukama hwepedyo kune mumwe nemumwe.
  • Kechipiri, mabhiza ekare epamba akaparara makore angangoita 4200 apfuura, pamwe nemabhiza emusango kubva kuWestern Eurasia akararama kusvika pakutanga kwechitatu mireniyumu BC, akave ane hukama hwepedyo nemabhiza emazuva ano epamba.
  • Chechitatu, nzvimbo yemabhiza kubva pakugara kweBotai *, iyo yakanga ichiri kuonekwa sevamiririri vekare vemabhiza epamba munyika, yakave yakajeka.

* Nzvimbo yekugara kweBotai chiyeuchidzo chekuchera matongo kumaodzanyemba kweNorth Kazakhstan dunhu reKazakhstan, inotangira ku3700-3100 BC. e.

Mabhiza echinyakare akapfuyiwa chokwadi aiwanikwako, asi kumabhiza emazuvano aingove hama dzekure. Panguva imwecheteyo, mabhiza eBotai akazova hama dzepedyo dzebhiza rePrzewalski. Kuti Bhiza rePrzewalski, kunyange zvazvo iri tateguru webhiza rakachengetwa, haisi yemazuva ano, asi yekare, avo vana vasina kurarama kusvikira nhasi.

Bhiza reLena, rinowanikwa mu permafrost yeYakutia, rakazova hama iri kure zvikuru yemabhiza emazuva ano epamba anozivikanwa.

Masayendisiti zvakare akavakazve nhoroondo yekugara kwebhiza remumba, zvichibva pazvidzidzo zvema genome uye chiyero chehukama hwemabhiza ekare aigara panguva dzakasiyana munzvimbo dzakasiyana dzeEurasia. Saka, bhiza rakachengetwa muWestern Eurasia, zvichida munzvimbo dzezasi dzeVolga neDon nzizi, munguva ye3500-2600 BC. e. Vanhu vakaita izvi vangangove vamiriri veYamnaya tsika, yaivepo pakupera kweCopper Age uye kutanga kweBronze Age kumaodzanyemba kweEast European Plain.

Muna 2200-2000 BC. e. mabhiza, kuonga kumunhu, akapararira kumadokero: Bohemia (kumadokero kweCzech Republic yemazuva ano), Asia Minor uye nechezasi kweDanube. 1500-1000 BC mabhiza epamba akaonekwa muWestern Europe neMongolia.

Chokwadi chinofadza: mumabhiza emusango ekare akatsakatika eAsia Minor neIberian Peninsula, misiyano yemajini yemhuka dzemazuva ano dzakawanikwa. Uyezve, ivo vakawanikwa mumitochondrial DNA (iyo inogarwa nhaka kuburikidza nemutsara waamai) uye muY chromosome (yakagara nhaka kuburikidza nemutsara wababa). Mabhiza epamba epamba aiyambuka nemabhiza emusango - uchapupu hweizvi hwakawanikwa nevatsvakurudzi vemazuva ano mumajenomes emabhiza ekare.

Muchidzidzo chekare chemagenome emunhu ekare, kutama kukuru kwevanhu kubva kumawere eWestern Eurasia kuenda kuCentral neEastern Europe kwakawanikwa mumireniyamu yechitatu BC. e. Vatsvakurudzi vaitarisira zvakakodzera kuti mabhiza aigona kuita basa rinokosha, asi tarisiro yacho haina kuzadzikiswa. Panguva iyoyo, mabhiza airamba ari munzvimbo imwe chete yaaigara, saka haana kutora chikamu mukugara kwekare.

Asi mabhiza akaita basa rinokosha mukutama kwakatevera, kwakatanga kukanganisa Iberian Peninsula neAsia Minor (2200 - 2000 BC), uye ipapo Central Asia neCentral Danubian Plain (2000 - 1800 BC). Mabhiza aifamba nevanhu - vaibatsira nekuunza zvinhu. Kupararira kwemabhiza kunzvimbo itsva kwakabatana nokuuya kwevhiri remapoked.

Kubva pamufananidzo wakaoma uyu, masayendisiti anogumisa kuti Pakutanga, mabhiza aishandiswa chete kutasva uye semhuka dzokutakura zvinhu. Kugadzwa kwekutakura kwebhiza kwakaonekwa gare gare, izvo zvakabvumira vanhu veWestern Eurasia kuti vagare muEurope neAsia Minor mumutsara wechipiri wekutama.

Neiyi nzira, masayendisiti akakwanisa kuona majini chaiwo aive pasi pekudzvanywa kwesarudzo, zvekuti iwo akasiyana siyana akave akajairika mumabhiza anopfuyiwa kupfuura mamwe emusango.

Kuzvarirwa mabhiza epamba emazuvano

Lena bhiza / Mufananidzo: travelask.ru

Pakati pemajini akakosha pakusarudzwa aive GSDMC neZFPM1 majini:

  • GSDMC - geni iro muvanhu rinobatanidzwa nezvirwere zvakasiyana-siyana, asi, munyaya yemhuka, pane zvinopesana, inobatsira kuwedzera simba remusana.
  • ZFPM1 - inobata basa rinokosha mukugadzirisa mafungiro, pamwe chete nemaitiro ane hutsinye emhuka. Mumabhiza epamba, zvakasiyana-siyana zvejeni iri zvinonyanya kukosha, zvinoreva kuderedzwa kwehasha.

Kana tikapfupisa kuongororwa kwema genomes emabhiza ekare, zvinova pachena kuti Kusarudzwa panguva yekuzvitakura kwakavakirwa pazvinhu zviviri zvikuru: simba remusana uye kunyunyuta kwechimiro.

Uye zvakadini netarpan, iyo yakawanikwa muEuropean neAsia steppes muzana ramakore rechiXNUMX, kusanganisira kumaodzanyemba kweRussia? Zvinosuruvarisa, vatsvakurudzi vakawana izvozvo tarpan yakanga isiri tateguru webhiza remazuva ano. Uyezve, tarpan yakanga isiri tateguru webhiza repamba, kana hybrid yebhiza repamba neBhiza rePrzewalski.

Pakati pemabhiza ose ane genomes akaongororwa, hama dzepedyo dzetarpan dzaiva mabhiza emusango akaparara eEurope. Kuti, tarpan yaiva hama, asi kwete tateguru wemabhiza emazuva ano.

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