Mhando dzeAquarium Plants

Mhando dzeAquarium Plants

Ruzhinji rwezvinomera zvemumvura zvatakajaira kubata nazvo muaquarium "secondary aquatic", ndiko kuti, mukushanduka-shanduka vakadzokera kumvura kubva kumhepo. Panyaya iyi, Mhando dzeAquarium Plants dzakafanana nemhuka dzemumvura (whales uye zvisimbiso): kana algae (sehove) isina kumbosiya mvura, zvino zvirimwa zvemumvura zvakakwirira (senge cetaceans) zvakadzokera mukunyaradzwa uye kusimba kwe "kubereka kwehupenyu." ", aita rudzi rwe "evolutionary excursion" Β» kunze kwayo. Kudzoka kwezvinomera zvakakwirira zvikuru zvemvura kunharaunda yemvura yakaitika munguva pfupi yapfuura, kubva pakuona kwe paleontology, mushure mekuparadzaniswa kwemakondinendi uye kuumbwa kwezvizhinji zvemazuva ano biogeographic isolates. 

Izvi zvinotsanangura mienzaniso yakawanda yeanologous (kusiyana nehomologous) budiriro inotungamira mukuumbwa kwemarudzi ekunze akafanana zvinoshamisa, ari ebhotani kumhuri dzakasiyana zvachose uye kunyange mirairo. Mienzaniso yechinyakare ndeye kabomba (por. Lily-flowered) uye ambulia (por. Lavender), kana kuti saggitaria, imwe mhando yakafanana neVallisneria, uye imwe kune dwarf Echinodorus tennelus, uye zvirimwa zvese izvi ndezva. mhuri dzakasiyana.

Mhando dzeAquarium Plants

Zvese izvi zvinoita kuti zvive zvisina zvazvinoreva zvachose kubva pakuona kweanoshanda uye ekushongedza aquarist kurongedza zvirimwa zvemumvura zvinoenderana neiyo botanical taxonomy. Muchokwadi, pakugadzira dhamu remukamuri, aquarist kazhinji haafanire kunyatsoziva kuti ndiani ari pamberi pake - diki saggitaria kana nyoro echinodorus, monosolenium liverwort kana lomariopsis fern, Ludwigia "Cuba" kana Eusteralis, kana zvidyarwa izvi zvinotaridzika. zvakafanana, kukura zvakafanana uye zvinoda zvirimo zvemamiriro akafanana. Izvi zvinotariswa zvakatungamira kune chokwadi chekuti mune aquarists itsika (nezvisingawanzo kunze) kusateerera kune yakarongeka chinzvimbo chezvirimwa, asi kuti zvigovane mumapoka zvichienderana nechitarisiko chavo, hunhu hwekukura, uye ecological niche inobatwa mukati. iyo biotope. Zvechokwadi, pane zvisizvo kune mutemo uyu: semuenzaniso,

Mhando dzeAquarium Plants

Kutenderera kwezvinyorwa zvezvinyorwa zvezvidyarwa zve aquarium, izvo zvatakatanga kukuziva iwe gore rapfuura uye zvichaenderera mberi mune ramangwana, zvakanyanya kuvakwa zvinoenderana neiyo kupatsanurwa, yechinyakare kune inoshanda aquarism. Maererano nazvo, zvese zvinomera zvemumvura zvakakamurwa kuita mapoka anotevera:

1. Ground cover zvirimwa zvemberi

Ground cover zvirimwa zvemberi

Iri boka rinosanganisira zvose zviduku, zvinomera zvishoma zvinomera mumvura zvinokura pamwe chete nepamusoro pevhu, uye nekudya kwakakwana uye chiedza, hazviiti "kusvetuka" pamusoro pemvura. Zvizhinji zvezvirimwa zveboka iri zvakazara mumvura, zvichikura munzvimbo yakanyura zvachose kwenguva yakareba, uye mamwe acho haana emers (mhepo) fomu zvachose. Mumamiriro ezvinhu akanaka, vanogadzira mateti akanaka uye kucheneswa, izvo zvinozopedzisira zvavhara zvachose pasi pevhu kumberi kweiyo aquarium, isingagarwe nemimwe miti.

2. Rosette uye pfupi-rhizome miti yepakati chirongwa

Rosette uye pfupi-rhizome zvirimwa zvepakati chirongwa

Iri ndiro boka rinowanzozivikanwa uye rakakurumbira remiti yemvura. Anenge ese cryptocorynes , echinodorus , nymphs , akawanda anubias , aponogetons , krinums, nhamba ye bucephalandras, nezvimwewo inogona kunzi kune iyo. Zvirimwa zvine mahombe ane mashizha akawanda emashizha anotaridzika zvakanaka mukati mechikamu che aquarium, achikwezva kutarisa uye kuronga dhizaini yekugadzira yakavapoteredza. Zvidyarwa zvidiki-diki, sekutonga, zvinoberekana zvakanaka ne basal nhungirwa, stolons kana rhizome buds, pakupedzisira inogadzira anoyevedza mapoka epakati chirongwa che aquarium.

Kusiyana, muboka remiti yerosette, munhu anofanirwa kusarudza nymphaeal, zai-pod uye zvirimwa zvakafanana, izvo pazera diki zvinogadzira rosette yakanaka yewavy mashizha pasi pemvura, zvisinei, pamukana mudiki, ivo vanobva vasunungura mashizha anoyangarara. refu petioles, shading aquarium, kunyanya akawanda pamberi uye panguva yemaruva. Vamwe vavo, maererano ne "maitiro" avo, vanogona kunge vanzi veboka rechi8 - "Semi-aquatic uye zvirimwa zvegungwa", semuenzaniso, lotus, iyo, mushure mekuyangarara, inosunungura airy, mashizha, uye chete ipapo inotanga bloom.

3. Miti yakareba-yakasiya rosette yemashure

Miti yakareba-yakasara yerosette yemashure

Zvisikwa zvishoma chete ndezveboka iri, asi zvinofanirwa kusiyaniswa zvakasiyana nekuda kwehunhu hwebiology. Aya ndiwo mashizha erosette ane mashizha akareba, ribhoni-semashizha anokurumidza kusvika pamusoro pemvura. Zviri nyore kuparadzirwa nezvinokambaira madzinde-stolons, pane izvo zvinomera zvitsva zvinoumbwa, mhuka idzi munguva pfupi inokwanisa kugadzira yakanakisa madziro madziro kumashure kweiyo aquarium, uye kana pasina kutarisirwa kwakakodzera, vanogona kuzadza hafu yevhoriyamu. . Chokutanga pane zvose, aya ndiwo marudzi ose evallisneria (yakajairika, spiral, twist-leaved, giant, etc.), marefu-akasara marudzi e saggitaria, mamwe marudzi e cryptocorynes uye aponogeton.

4. Miti yakareba-yakareba kumashure

Miti yakareba-yakareba kumashure

Iri pamwe ndiro boka rakakura uye rakapararira rezvirimwa zvemumvura zvinorimwa mumakungwa. Ivo vakabatana nechitarisiko chavo - vertical stems inonangidzirwa kumusoro, pane iyo mashizha ari alternately kana zvinopesana. Chimiro chemashizha aya chinogona kunge chiri chero chinhu - kubva kune yakapfava pinnate, senge mu ambulia uye cabomb, kune yakafara "burdocks", senge muhygrophila "nomafila", kubva kumativi, senge mubacopa, kusvika kutete uye ribhoni-senge mupogestemon. "octopus", kubva kune yakaoma uye inenge prickly kusvika kune yakapfava uye inopenya. Ruvara rwemashizha ehurefu hurefu hwakasiyanawo zvikuru - kubva kune yakasvibirira kusvika kune maroon. Zvinoshamisa here kuti ndiyo chaiyo yakawanda uye yakasiyana-siyana yemiti yakareba-yakareba ndiyo hwaro hwekare uye kusvika munguva ichangopfuura iyo inonyanya kufarirwa dhizaini yakasimwa aquariums - iyo "Dutch".

5. Yakanamatira kana nyika-inoshongedza miti

Yakanamatira kana nyika-inoshongedza Mhando dzeAquarium Plants

Chinhu chakajairika cheboka iri rezvirimwa, iro rinonyanya kubatsira mukugadzira yekushongedza nziyo, kugona kwavo kukurumidza uye kwakasimba kubatanidza nerubatsiro rwemidzi kana rhizoids kune yakaoma yekuyamura substrate - snags, matombo, yekushongedza ceramics - uye inoyevedza kukura. pamusoro pepamusoro. Kuwedzera kune aquarium mosses, dzinenge dzese dzine iyi pfuma, yepakati-saizi mhando dzeanubias, iyo Thai fern, dzinenge dzese marudzi eBucephalandra, nezvimwe zvinokura zvakakwana kusvika kune snags nematombo. Miti yakadaro yakajairika mu aquaristics yemazuva ano, uye nekuda kwekushongedza kwavo kwepamusoro ivo vanozivikanwa zvikuru .

6. Zvirimwa zvinoyangarara mumbiru yemvura

Mhando dzeAquarium Plants dzinoyangarara mukoramu yemvura

Kune akati wandei marudzi akadaro asina kana anenge asina midzi uye anogara ari akasununguka-anoyangarara mamiriro. Chekutanga, aya ese marudzi matatu ehornworts anowanikwa mutsika, Guadalupe nyas (kana nyas microdon), mamwe marudzi epemphigus neliverworts, pamwe netatu-lobed duckweed. Kazhinji zvirimwa zvinoyangarara zvakasununguka zvine mwero wekukura uye kuchinjika kwakanakisa kumamiriro ekuchinja uye akashata, uye nekudaro mazhinji acho (semuenzaniso, hornwort uye nyas) anoshandiswa senge zvirimwa zvekutanga kana uchitanga aquarium nyowani, pamwe ne "kuporesa" zvirimwa. nekuda kwekubuda kwegreen algae. : nekukura kwavo nokukurumidza uye kudya kunoshingaira, vanokwanisa zvinoshamisa kukwikwidzana negirini algae yezvokudya zvakanyungudutswa mumvura. 

7. Zvirimwa zvinoyangarara pamusoro pemvura

Mhando dzeAquarium Plants dzinoyangarara pamusoro pemvura

Iri boka rakakura rinogona kukamurwa kuita zvikamu zviviri: zvinomera zvine hydrophilic mashizha anoyangarara pasi pepamusoro (limnobiums, duckweeds, riccia, mamwe pemphigus, nezvimwewo) uye zvinomera zvine hydrophobic mashizha ari pamusoro pepamusoro (pistia, eichornia, salvinia, nezvimwewo) .). Kupatsanura uku kunoenderana zvakanyanya: semuenzaniso, iyo inoyangarara fomu ye ceratopteris fern inogona kugadzira ese ari maviri hydrophilic uye hydrophobic mashizha, nepo Riccia uye pemphigus, iyo inowanzoyangarara pasi pepamusoro, inokura uye ichikwira pamusoro pemvura mumhepo. Mune aquarism, zvinomera zvinoyangarara zvinoshandiswa, kutanga, kune chikamu chechikamu chezvimwe zvikamu zve aquarium kuumbwa (somuenzaniso, pamusoro pe anubias isingadi chiedza chakasimba), uye chechipiri, se substrate yekuberekesa kwemarudzi akawanda ehove. Mukuwedzera, masumbu emidzi akarembera mumvura, semuenzaniso.

8. Semi-aquatic coastal plants

Semi-aquatic coastal Mhando dzeAquarium Plants

Kunyatsotaura, zvirimwa zvakawanda zvakasimwa mu aquarium zvinogona kuverengerwa muboka iri. Zvishoma zvacho zvinomera zvinogara mumvura zvakakwana, kureva kuti hazvigone kuenda "pasi" (kukwira pamusoro pemvura) uye hazvina emers (mhepo) fomu (iyo, nenzira, mumiti yakawanda yakasiyana zvikuru pasi pemvura, pasi pemvura). Shanduko yezvirimwa zvemumvura zvechipiri kuenda kumararamiro epasi pemvura yaive, sekutonga, chimiro chekugadzirisa mafashama e periodic panguva yekuchinja kwemwaka. Anoverengeka emahombekombe egungwa emvura yakachena anogara ari pasi pemvura kwemavhiki akati wandei (kana kunyange kwemwedzi yakati wandei), uye anooma kwenguva yese. Zvidyarwa zvemumhenderekedzo yegungwa (zvakadai seanubias, cryptocorynes, echinodorus, nezvimwewo) zvakagadzira shanduko dzakakosha dzinovabvumira kuramba vachirarama uye kukura sekunge vari pasi pemvura.

Nekudaro, isu hativasanganisire muboka iri (zvikasadaro zvingave zvakafanira kupinda hafu yakanaka yeassortment yese pano), asi izvo chete zvinomera zvinogara zvakakwana mune semi-mafashama fomu ("tsoka mumvura, musoro pamusoro. nyika"), asi haigone kugara kwenguva yakareba pasi pemvura. Nenzira, makore 100-150 apfuura, pakutanga kwe aquarism, pakanga pane ruzhinji rwemiti yakadaro mutsika. Zvakakwana kuti utarise mapendi ekare uye akavezwa ane aquariums kuti uone kuti iwo ainyanya kushongedzwa nemachakwi akadai seCyperus papyrus, Chastuha plantain, calla, arrowhead, akasiyana sedges, tsanga, cattails, telorez, tradescantia, calamus (acorus) uye kunyange mupunga wesango. Nhasi, zvirimwa zvese izvi hazviwanzo mu aquarium tsika, uye zvinokura zvakanyanya nevanoda aquapaludarium.

9. Aquarium mosses uye chiropa

Aquarium mosses uye chiropa

Sechinyakare, mosses yemumvura inoiswa seboka rakasiyana rezvidyarwa zve aquarium nekuda kwezvakasiyana zvebiology yavo. Zvinenge zvose, nerubatsiro rwerhizoid, zvakabatanidzwa kune substrate (matombo, snags, ivhu, mamwe kunyange girazi!) Mamwe mamosi (fontinalis boka) anonamirwa padombo chete nechepazasi pedzinde (thallus), nepo chirimwa chose chiri mumvura. Asi mamosi mazhinji anokwira achitevedza substrate, achiitenderedza. Iro boka rimwechete rinosanganisira liverworts (monosolenium, riccardia, pasi mafomu ericcia, nezvimwewo), pamwe chete neLomariopsis fern, inenge isinganzwisisiki kubva kune chiropa. Ma Liverworts, kusiyana nemamosses, angave asina rhizoids, kana kuumba rhizoid isina kusimba iyo isingabatike zvakanaka kune substrate, asi kukanganisa uku kunobhadharwa nehukuru hwakakosha hwesimba re monosolenium thallus, lomariopsis, nezvimwewo, kuitira kuti kunyangwe pasina kubatanidzwa. vanogadzira cushion inoshamisa pazasi. Maketeni akadaro anotarisa kunyanya kushamisa kana zvinomera zvemvura zvinomera kuburikidza nazvo - saggitaria uye cryptocorynes.

10. Zvirimwa zvisina kubatanidzwa mune chero emapoka

Ehe, hazvisi zvese zvinomera zvinokura muayamu yedu zvinopinda muchikamu ichi. Zvisikwa zvinogara zvakapfuma uye zvakasiyana-siyana kupfuura pfungwa yedu yazvo, uye zvechokwadi mutsika kune marudzi asingakodzeri mune chero emapoka.

Mhando dzeAquarium Plants - Vhidhiyo

Mhando dzeAquatic Plants yeAquarium